The Asian financial crisis was a series of currency devaluations and other events that spread through many Asian markets beginning in the summer of 1997. The more fragile and inflexible any given market is, the more it will suffer from a negative shock. Moreover, the more fragile and inflexible markets are in general, the more likely that a negative shock in one market will develop eur/dkk fx into a contagion between markets. This means that the major factor driving economic contagion between markets is the robustness and flexibility of those markets. This watershed moment, the roots of which lay in gross excess of dollar-denominated debt in the region, quickly spread to nearby East Asian countries, resulting in widespread currency and market crises in the region.
In fact, a recent study on adolescent drug use found a gene-by-environment interaction such that those with a genetic liability to substance use were more influenced by best friends who were users (Harden et al. 2008). Genetic factors were also correlated with selection of a best friend who was a heavy user. Research on emotional contagion has been conducted from a variety of perspectives, including organizational, social, familial, developmental, and neurological.
Modeling friendship networks over time could help illuminate the mechanisms of peer contagion and allow researchers to separate the effects of selection and influence. The analysis of social rejection as a moderator is a complex undertaking, in part because of the importance 100 winning with bollinger band indicator of a youth’s ecology. We have known for some time that in some ecologies and classrooms, problem behavior is the source of popularity and acceptance (e.g., Stormshak et al. 1999), whereas in others, it is a source of peer rejection (e.g., Coie & Kupersmidt 1983, Dodge 1983).
It relies mainly on non-verbal communication, although emotional contagion can and does occur via telecommunication. For example, people interacting through e-mails and chats are affected by the other’s emotions, without being able to perceive the non-verbal cues. Hatfield, Cacioppo, and Rapson’s 1993 research into emotional contagion reported that people’s conscious assessments of others’ feelings were heavily influenced by what others said. People’s own emotions, however, were more influenced by others’ nonverbal clues as to what they were really feeling. Recognizing emotions and acknowledging their origin can be one way to avoid emotional contagion.
Most interventions for children and adolescents are delivered in the context of peer groups, including those in public schools and juvenile correction facilities. It is especially important to conduct careful evaluations of all programs and use random assignment if possible. Several methodological tools are now available for studying peer contagion that were unavailable a decade ago. For example, observation systems that capture both deviant talk and positive reactions from age 5 through adolescence are available, as are measures that are potentially useful for measuring peer contagion in intervention groups.
Positive Youth Development
This review focuses on empirical literature examining peer contagion in natural settings and in programs that aggregate youth.We focus on peer contagion in children and adolescents for two reasons. First, there is clear evidence that the social influence of peers becomes less critical in adulthood (Gardner & Steinberg 2005). Moreover, neuroanatomical and social evidence suggests that adolescence may be a specifically critical period of development during which peers are especially influential (e.g., Spear 2000, Steinberg et al. 2006). Without doubt, susceptibility to peer influence increases throughout childhood and peaks during adolescence (Dishion et al. 2004, Steinberg & Monahan 2007). The past several decades of research reveal that peer interactions in childhood can have both short-term (e.g., Snyder et al. 2005) and long-lasting (e.g., Nelson & Dishion 2004) effects on development. Second, a joint focus on influence and development calls attention to the role of peer contagion during a period of rapid change.
Adult monitoring and structure, as well as self-regulation, can reduce the likelihood of peer contagion. Forms of social contagion have been studied with different social species, such as gorillas. Contagion can be referred to as an economic crisis or changes in a regional market which has a total influence on another. In other words, economic breakdown or others in a specific geographic region influences another region. Since the economy of the world has grown over the years with different countries in the common international market, this has given rise to the term. Contagion is described by academics and analysts to have occurred as a result of the global market interdependence.
First, an innovative longitudinal study reported by Laird and colleagues consisted of a person-centered trajectory analysis of a sample of adolescents. Two groups were identified, one with decreasing monitoring over time and a second with relatively high levels that were stable through adolescence. For the latter group, the covariation between having deviant friends and the youths’ problem behavior was significantly less than for those whose parents were decreasing their monitoring over time. The results of this analysis fit well with a study that showed a significant interaction between changes in observed family management and deviancy training from early to late adolescence.
British Dictionary definitions for contagion
Health-care providers should realize that efforts to prevent news coverage may not be effective, and their goal should be to assist news professionals in their efforts toward responsible and accurate reporting. Warren K, Schoppelrey S, Moberg P, McDonald M. A model of contagion through competition in the aggressive behaviors of elementary school students. Snijders TAB, Baerveldt C. A multilevel network study of the effects of delinquent behavior on friendship evolution. Eggert LL, Thompson EA, Herting JR, Nicholas LJ, Dickers BG. Preventing adolescent drug abuse and high school dropout through an intensive school-based social network development program.
- Contagion was first coined in 1997 as a result of the Asian financial market crisis.
- He had been active in local youth organizations, although he had not attended meetings in several months.
- A contagion is the spread of an economic crisis from one market or region to another and can occur at both a domestic or international level.
- Such efforts were often counterproductive, and news articles about suicides were written without the valuable input of well- informed suicide-prevention specialists and others in the community.
If suicide is presented as an effective means for accomplishing specific ends, it may be perceived by a potentially suicidal person as an attractive solution. For example, reporting that a person died from carbon monoxide poisoning may not be harmful; however, providing details of the mechanism and procedures used to complete the suicide may facilitate imitation of the suicidal behavior by other at-risk persons. All parties should understand that a scientific basis exists for concern that news coverage of suicide may contribute to the causation of suicide.
For example, an actual virus can affect someone after a single exposure, whereas typically with social contagion, people need several exposures before adopting the new behaviour or emotion. Some scholars (e.g., Ralph H. Turner) have suggested that certain types of collective behaviour are better understood by emergent norm theory or convergence theory, rather than by social contagion. Much early work on social contagion looked only at harmful effects, in keeping with the infectious disease metaphor. Yet towards the end of the 20th century, and especially in the 21st, scholars began to look at neutral and positive contagion. For example, the rippling of happiness through a social network, up to three degrees of separation from the initiator.
High school youth reported increased exposure to high-risk peer environments, anger, and decreases in grades, school connectedness, and conventional peer bonding. The concept of disordered eating in adolescence is complicated because various social dynamics steer patterns of overeating that lead to obesity, problematic dieting, purging practices in bulimia, and food restriction in anorexia (Stice & Bulik 2008). Clearly, changes in attitudes about nutrition and exercise during the past decades underlie the current epidemic in childhood obesity (Krishnamoorthy et al. 2006).
Criminal Contagion and Criminal Imitation
In these systematic studies, aggressive children, boys in particular, were often found to be central to the core social cliques in the classroom despite the fact that they were often socially rejected by many classmates (Coie & Kupersmidt 1983, Dodge 1983). Rejection by peers because of aggression depends on the overall level of aggression in the school (Stormshak et al. 1999). The body of research on aggression in middle childhood suggests that peer attention may be in part an amplifying condition, with a collateral side effect of peer rejection. Contagion can apply not only to the spread of emotions but also to the spread of disease. (Be sure to use the word contagion when you call in sick; it’s a great opportunity to impress people with your vocabulary.) Contagion is akin to the word contagious, an adjective describing things that spread from person to person, like certain diseases… Companies and researchers have recently designed studies that simulate emotional contagion among people online.
Both studies tested a “cascade” model for the progression from antisocial behavior to more serious forms of violence, with the drift into a deviant peer group identified as a core component of the progression. The models fit the data well; violence by age 18–19 was remarkably roinvesting review well predicted by gang identification and involvement at age 14 (Dishion et al. 2010). Several factors determine the rate and extent of emotional convergence in a group, including membership stability, mood-regulation norms, task interdependence, and social interdependence.
Scientific definitions for contagion
Elements in the environment that might increase the likelihood of further suicides or suicide attempts should be identified and changed. A host agency whose responsibilities would include “housing” the plan, monitoring the incidence of suicide, and calling meetings of the coordinating committee when necessary. There are statistical methods available that can be applied, such as geographic information systems, Knox, Poisson, or Scan tests. Cases with obvious connections or those without apparent connections can both have similarly devastating consequences on friends, family, and communities. However, the cluster cases do not necessarily need to involve the same injury method. The names of persons and places in these examples are fictitious and do not refer to an actual event.
Weiss B, Caron A, Ball S, Tapp J, Johnson M, Weisz JR. Iatrogenic effects of group treatment for antisocial youths. The effects of mindfulness training and individual differences in mindfulness on social perception and empathy. Harden KP, Hill JE, Turkheimer E, Emery RE. Gene–environment correlation and interaction in peer effects on adolescent alcohol and tobacco use. Christakis NA, Fowler JH. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. Adams RE, Bukowski WM, Bagwell C. Stability of aggression during early adolescence as moderated by reciprocated friendship status and friend’s aggression. More research is needed to examine how peers influence each other in positive ways.
Evidence relevant to the processes underlying the “dark side” of friendship was introduced broadly into the developmental literature by Hartup in his presidential address to the Society for Research in Child Development. Research on peer contagion processes as they relate to child and adolescent psychopathology has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. Evidence for potential negative effects of peer interactions in settings such as preschools first emerged in the developmental literature in the mid-1960s.